CAPACITY BUILDING FOR SCHOOL LEADERS TO SUPPORT ICT INTEGRATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING

Abstract:
Successful ICT integration is related to actions taken at the school level, such as the development of an ICT plan, ICT support, and ICT training (Tondeur & van Keer, 2008). The role of school leaders in building the capacity of teachers to support and facilitate ICT integration in teaching and learning is therefore very important. (Schiller, 2003).The school leaders major responsibility lies in initiating and implementing school change also in taking the right decisions to support the ICT integration into pedagogical practices. Being aware of the different developmental stages that teachers may go through in an implementation phase and knowing how to provide adequate support is essential for a successful ICT integration. This research aims at discussing the different responsibilities of a school leader and the different kinds of leadership that can support this transformation and integration.

Table of Contents
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3
1. School ICT policy plan…………………………………………………………………………………………..3
2. Shared leadership in ICT Integration…………………………………………………………………….4
3. ICT policy plan Implementation…………………………………………………………………………….5
4. Supportive Leadership in school ICT Integration……………………………………………………6
5. Leadership Development: theory and practice……………………………………………………..7
5.1. Leader of learning………………………………….……………………………………………….7
5.2. Leader of student entitlement …………..…..……………………………………………..7
5.3. Leader of capacity building……………………………..……………………………………..7
5.4. Leader of community..………………………………….………………………………………..8
5.5. Leader of resource management..………………………………………………………….8
6. Incentives and motivating environment ICT policy……………………………………………….9
7. Building confidence…………………………………………………………………………………………….10
7.1 Substitution……………………………………………………………………………………………………..10
7.2 Augmentation…………………………………………………………………………………………..….10
7.3 Modification………………………………………………………………………………………….10
7.4 Redefinition…………………………………………………………………………………………..10
8. Conclusion…………….…………………………………………………………………………………………….13
9. Table of Figures…..………………………………………………………………………………………………14
10. Works Cited….…………………………………………………………………………………………………..14

Introduction:
Many schools around the world fail to integrate ICT successfully, due to many factors including lack of access to ICTs (Hayes, 2007; Tondeur, Valcke, & van Braak, 2008); lack of access to ongoing professional development and training (Davis, Preston, & Sahin, 2009; Tondeur, et al., 2008); lack of availability of technical support (Hayes, 2007; Kearney & McGarr, 2009); poor infrastructure (Kearney & McGarr, 2009), and an institutional culture that is not conducive to change and innovation (Hammond, et al., 2009; Hess & Kelly, 2007). Implementing ICT into schools is the responsibility of the school principal, they have to ensure that the best interests of the students are served through effective ICT infrastructure and staff professional development (Gronow, 2007 ). But unfortunately many principals have not prepared for their new role as technology leaders, and have therefore struggled to develop both the human and technical resources necessary to achieve ICT outcomes in their schools. Very few principals have used computers themselves in meaningful ways with children, and therefore lack the requisite pedagogical vision and experience to guide teachers. Due to this problem informal leaders in many schools have emerged from classrooms, libraries and computer labs to take up the difficult task of planning for technology integration, and supporting distributed and often uncoordinated efforts by enthusiastic teachers (Flanagan, 2003). Leadership is therefore a critical component in the successful integration of ICT in Education (Haynes, 2007; Kearney & McGarr, 2009; Kirkland & Sutch, 2009).The importance of leadership in managing ICT integration has been revealed in many research. In order to be effective, leaders have to deploy three comprehensive categories of leadership practices: setting direction, developing people and making the organization work (Leithwood, Louis, Anderson & Wahlstrom, 2004; Leithwood & Riehl, 2003, 2005). Another main factor which exercises great influence on the ability of leaders to influence ICT integration is policy and good practice. Groff and Mouza (2008) claim that national policy documents that fail to make clear recommendations for practice make it hard for staff to interpret policy in practice. Schools have to develop and take specific steps to implement policies to ensure that there are commonly understood protocols and practices operating at all levels of the organization and by all staff. These protocols and practices are the responsibility of the school leader and need to ensure that the school’s network facilities /ICT resources are:
• used appropriately and lawfully; and
• that both staff and students are afforded maximum protection from
problems such as accusations about inappropriate staff/student communication error, fraud, accessing of inappropriate websites defamation, sabotage, extortion, breach of copyright, harassment, unlawful discrimination, , privacy violations, illegal activity, service interruption.

Leaders must also acknowledge the pedagogical use of ICT in education and be prepared to lead these reforms. These policies were criticized by Comber et. al (2006) as most of them include only ‘narrow technical plans’ which remove opportunities for discussion among educational leaders about pedagogies, school structures and the curriculum. According to Robert Kozma, it appears that teachers belonging to schools engaged in ICT planning are more likely to apply ICT in an innovative way (Kozma, 2003).
1. School ICT policy plan
To ensure a successful ICT integration school leaders have to begin with developing an ICT policy plan that is grounded in a shared vision of teaching and learning on the one hand and ICT integration on the other hand (Fishman & Pinkard, 2001). An ICT policy plan is a document that describes technical and infrastructure specifications, but principally describes the learning objectives for ICT use as well as strategies of its implementation (including professional development). (Vanderlinde et al., May 2012). ICT integration in schools is not only a matter of policy, but of vision and strategy. An important question to develop this plan would be the following “Is the goal to “learn-to-use” the technology or to “use-to-learn” from the technology? Being clear about objectives increases the probability that the desired outcome will be achieved. Developing an ICT Policy, vision and strategy extends the environmental ICT context, facilitate Technological infrastructure, promote professional development, improves curriculum, pedagogy and content enrichment, management and finance utilization and easy monitoring and evaluation. (Tedla, 2012). The development of a shared vision concerning how ICT is to be used for teaching and learning (Hughes & Zachariah, 2001; Otto & Albion, 2002) is very important. ICT policy planning requires collaboration of teachers during the process of policy planning and decision making (Fishman & Pinkard, 2001). The plan therefore includes elements such as a vision for using ICT in classrooms, providing professional development, ICT skills expected of teachers and students, ICT curriculum, hardware and software to acquire and support, funds to allocate, etc.
A clearly defined vision for ICT includes:
• Planning, funding and implementation;
• Improving access and equity of use;
• Understanding of legal and ethical issues;
• Awareness of learning theory, pedagogy and curriculum development.
(Hately and Schiller, 2003)
The developed ICT policy plan needs to be frequently updated (Fishman & Pinkard, 2001) following the monitoring of the implementation of the plan. What also needs to be considered by the school leader is to develop a realistic plan as borrowed policies on ICT issue always remain impractical and bound to fail. Realistic policy serves as a framework, blueprint or roadmap to integrate and facilitate ICT implementation in schools. (Tedla, 2012)
2. Shared leadership in ICT integration
The position of school principals can create the conditions to develop a shared ICT policy. Fullan (2005) makes clear that for any initiative to become embedded in an educational institution distributed leadership and shared responsibility is required.
Research also supports the suggestion that distributed leadership throughout an educational institution or system enables successful ICT integration (Farrell & Isaacs, 2007; Giltinan, 2006; Hadjithoma & Karagiorgi, 2009; Hayes, 2007). Leadership can take the form of pioneer teachers (Midoro & Admiraal, 2003); everyone in the school (Goddard, 2003); senior management (Lawson & Comber 1999) mentors or supervisory teachers (Hammond, et al., 2009), ICT coordinators (Wong, 2008), Principals (Schiller, 2002), and even network administrators (Hayes, 2007). School principals who wish to encourage a technology culture need to join in rather than monitoring the process. The distribution of power develops a learning school that encourages people at all levels to learn from their work, the organisation values learning so that it can transform itself through dealing with change (Dubrin, Dalglish and Miller, 2006). The principal’s vision of the possibilities of ICT in teaching and learning are realised through supporting and developing the skills of others. (Gronow, 2007 ). School leaders can also establish an ICT committee to assist them in effective ICT integration in school. Principals have to act as a positive change agent in that case. Working with staff and/or a technology committee, s/he directs the development of a vision for technology implementation. The committee can assist them in promoting the development of:
• New School Administration Database by reviewing of administration databases and making recommendation to the Principal of the preferred package
• New Content Management System. The committee can assist in reviewing a number of Content Management Systems and make recommendation to the Principal for the preferred package.
• Purchase of ICT resources. The ICT committee also can recommend to the principal the purchase and placement of hardware like laptop computers, Mac Labs, interactive white boards and data projectors.
• Networking and resource problems. The ICT committee can discuss issues and concerns brought to its attention and works towards maintaining a secure and efficient network of computers.
• Staff development and ICT support. The ICT committee can also discuss appropriate development of supporting staff in teaching and learning in an ICT rich environment. (Gronow, 2007 )
3. ICT policy plan Implementation
Before an ICT policy can be implemented an introduction of infrastructure facilities, teacher awareness and competence need to be increased and enhanced (Tedla, 2012). Several studies (e.g. Anderson & Dexter, 2000; Dawson & Rakes, 2003) claim that leadership promoting change is a key factor when it comes to integrating ICT and instruction. The purpose of a local school policy practice- and policy-oriented approach is to strengthen schools’ capacity for change management (Creemers, 2002). The success of the implementation of a school policy lies in the principal’s ability to effectively lead and develop change, to create a learning community (Collarbone, 2003). To provide this learning community people have to work together with a common focus providing members with identity, belonging and involvement by giving a sense of direction, order and meaning to the organization (Gronow, 2007 ). Training of principals therefore should be a priority. Their capacity to develop and articulate a shared vision about ICT use and integration, in close collaboration with other actors from the school community, is considered as a critical building block in this process. Principals have to develop a more collaborative approach when defining this policy. Research discovered that teachers in schools with an explicit ICT school policy that stresses shared goals are using ICT more regularly in their classroom (Tondeur & van Keer, 2008). Professional Development for school leaders is therefore essential to help them gain knowledge on the latest information regarding ICT and technology use. Rapid innovation in technology poses a challenge of constant new knowledge and skills, which the leaders need. Furthermore, school leaders need to strive to bring all teachers on board for complete school improvement. (Mwawasi, 2014). The ICT attainment targets do not focus on technical skills, but emphasize the integrated use of ICT within the teaching and learning process (Vanderlinde, van Braak & Hermans, 2009). School principals play a central role in the importance of leadership in developing a commitment to change (Fullan, 2001). The ICT policy plan should first be implemented in pilot mode rather than full scale, in order to determine whether the various elements work individually and in combination. This pilot implementation has to be closely monitored and the evaluation results should be used to modify the plan for full implementation. The latter requires even more careful planning, and the implementation itself needs continuous monitoring and evaluation so that implementation problems are detected and addressed in a timely manner. It is only through systematic monitoring and evaluation that the educational effectiveness of ICT interventions can be determined (Ng & Miao et al., 2009-2010).

4. Supportive Leadership in school ICT integration
An important factor is the development of a shared vision concerning how ICT is to be used for teaching and learning (Hughes & Zachariah, 2001; Otto & Albion, 2002). Teachers that belong to schools engaged in ICT planning are more likely to apply ICT in an innovative way (Kozma, 2003). A number of studies (e.g. Anderson & Dexter, 2000; Dawson & Rakes, 2003) state that leadership promoting change is a key factor when it comes to merging ICT and instruction. Leadership plays a key role in ICT integration in education. Many teacher- or student-initiated ICT projects have been challenged by lack of support from school leaders. To apply an effective and sustainable ICT integration program, administrators must be competent in the use of the technology, and they also must have a general understanding of the technical, curricular, administrative, financial, and social dimensions of ICT use in education (ICT in Education/Key Challenges in Integrating ICTs in Education, 2013).
However, the integration of ICT into classroom instructions, remains far behind because of numerous inhibiting factors, such as the inadequacy of infrastructures (internet access, bandwidth, software, hardware, computers), lack of realistic policy on ICT use, lack of teacher’s pre-service and in-service training, poor teachers’ welfare and morale, lack of parent and community participation, political and social conflict (Tedla, 2012). Teachers, like all learners, learn new skills most readily when there is a need to do so. They generally resist technology innovations that do not match the context in which they work, especially when these technologies do not address real classroom problems, situations and learning goals. To overcome this resistance it is important to provide real tasks for teachers, allow them to set individual goals, acquire the skills to meet these goals and have opportunities to reflect on their learning experiences (Glenn 2003).
5. Leadership Development: theory and practice
The Calgary Board of Education’s in the year 2000 developed a framework for analysing the principal’s role as technology leader which outlines core competencies, personal attributes and role responsibilities for school-based leaders. The Figure below is a visual representation for these responsibilities.

Figure 1

Capture
There are five role responsibilities identified in the Leadership Development
Program represented in this figure:
1. Leader of learning;
2. Leader of student entitlement;
3. Leader of capacity building;
4. Leader of community; and
5. Leader of resource management.

5.1. Leader of learning
The principal in this role must demonstrate a thorough understanding of the ICT Program of Studies, especially of those outcomes that relate to higher-level skills. According to the Alberta Learning (2000) ICT Program of Studies learner outcomes are organized in three categories: (1) processes for productivity (P); (2) foundational operations, knowledge and concepts (F); and (3) communicating, inquiring, decision making and problem solving (C). The richest learning experiences occur in the C level
As instructional leaders, principals must continually focus and refocus teachers on these higher level outcomes. (Flanagan, 2003)

5.2. Leader of student entitlement
The principal in this role addresses issues related to equity of access to technology for all students. A part of this is ensuring that every teacher provides age appropriate opportunities for students to develop technology skills. The principal should also be sensitive to issues of gender, economic background, cultural and language differences and systemic barriers that affect students’ use of technology. Teachers should also be able to prepare individual program plans, which outline specific modifications to program content to support students with special needs (those with learning/physical disabilities, emotional/social needs, or gifted students) as assistive technology can be of great help in these cases. (Flanagan, 2003)

5.3. Leader of capacity building
The principal can act as a mentor or coach, as informal leaders emerge on staff. Capacity building extends to developing potential ICT leadership among parents and students, as well as school staff. If successful, the whole school community takes ownership for the change process (Flanagan, 2003). ICT achievement targets do not focus on technical skills, but emphasize the integrated use of ICT within the teaching and learning process (Vanderlinde, van Braak, & Hermans, 2009).The principal who delegates the responsibilities of leadership is also able to create a learning community where everyone is given an opportunity to contribute to decision making, thus empowering people by allocating ownership to the shared vision. Dubrin, Dalglish and Miller (2006) describe delegation as a major contribution to empowerment. The encouragement of others to lead fosters greater initiative and responsibility (Gronow, 2007 ).The effective principal can create a learning community, by developing a culture that supports and promotes risk taking, innovation and adaptation to change (Gurr, Drysdale and Mulford, 2006). Learning is a continuous process and managing change is a permanent part of the principal’s role (Hartle and Hobby). As cited in Collarbone (2003), Barth suggests that to transform the culture of a school in a learning community, leaders themselves must become learners, innovators and risk takers. (Gronow, 2007 ). By leading the reform the principal develops personally as a powerful leader, without necessarily being the expert. The ICT leader gains credit for the accomplishment, giving satisfaction and ownership to the direction and decision involved in the shared vision developed by the principal, in collaboration with the school community. Qualities of such an ICT leader as Lee, Gaffney and Schiller (2001) listed are:
• Understanding quality education in a networked world.
• Understanding of ICT as it relates to teaching and learning.
• Valuing the effectiveness of integrating technical and human resources.
• Able to operating within a networked paradigm.
• Appreciative of the importance of knowledge management.
• An excellent net worker.
• Having high level analytical skills.
• Having good interpersonal and management skills.
• Able to oversee the work of other ICT staff.
• Able to lead the change management process.
• Able to provide education for all students in a digital world.
• Able to operate as an assistant or deputy principal (Gronow, 2007 )

The principal as a learner and user of ICT should also be a role model to the school community demonstrating the importance of ICT. An ICT infrastructure in a school allows for networked communities, promoting fast communication and information sharing. The school leader should use this network in his daily communication to allow for a less hierarchical and more flexible organisation, creating a new pattern of learning in school. This can make the school more efficient and transformative (Haughey, 2006). Another way is supplying ICT resources like interactive white boards in classrooms so teachers are encouraged to experiment in using them before training; this approach is getting more and more popular. Teachers learn to use ICT through regular and consistent use. (Gronow, 2007 )

5.4. Leader of community
School principals have three main objectives: (1) to involve the community, including parents and business partners, in achieving the goals of technology integration;
(2) To communicate the schools’ accomplishments and challenges to the community; and (3) to extend student learning beyond the walls of the school.
This can be helpful in fundraising issues. If the community supports the idea or the new approach it can easily support the needed funding for the project. To continue the overhaul of the system, leaders advocating change must provide: information and examples to all Stakeholders of what is expected once the changes are implemented; appropriate training and professional development; and a psychological safety net allowing individuals to express their concerns and uncertainties about what is to happen. It is also important that community members feel comfortable that students will continue to learn the subjects and skills that are important.

5.5. Leader of resource management
In this role the principal is responsible for managing the resources necessary for technology integration. This includes developing priorities for spending, which directly support the goals of the school’s technology plan. Fundamental decisions, as wiring, location of computers in labs or classrooms, and developing guidelines for the purchase of hardware and software are also an important part of this responsibility. Resourceful principals will explore many avenues for acquiring technology resources, including fundraising, government and university grants, and business partnerships. (Flanagan, 2003)

6. Incentives and motivating environment ICT policy
Effective ICT integration also requires introduction of incentives and the provision of a motivating environment. Teachers require motivation and incentives like allowances, recognition and award of prizes for outstanding performance, creativity and innovativeness. (Nyenwe & Ishikaku, Vol 3, No 10, 2012).Many teachers resist ICT innovations that do not match the context in which they work, and tend to integrate technology when it addresses real classroom problems, situations and learning goals. Teachers adopt change when they are able to set the goals, have opportunities to acquire the needed skills, and reflect on their learning. (Nan-Zhao, 2003, p. 18). The fact that ICT is not yet included in the formal curriculum in many countries has limited their personal impact on the current level of ICT integration in schools. Computer labs are less effective because the separation between computer and classroom reduces ICT integration in learning activities (Salomon, 1990). In a country like Finland for example ICT coordination is especially to guide ICT integration in teaching and learning (curriculum support).
Sadiman (2003) provides school leaders the following advice if ICT is to impact in a positive way on student learning and teacher training. In his opinion professional development activities need to:
1. be connected to and derived from teacher’s work with their students (classroom based);
2. be sustained, ongoing and intensive, supported by peers and school leaders;
3. include collective problem solving around specific problems of practices;
4. be integrated into the larger framework of teacher career regulations and incentives; and
5. be responsive to social and educational priorities at both the national and local level. (Nan-Zhao, 2003, p. 18)

Educators are already the masters of pedagogy and content knowledge in the classroom. For many however, technology knowledge is not their everyday area of expert knowledge. Therefore teachers need the support of their respective schools and school leaders in order to facilitate this development so that teachers can make the informed decisions about when it is right to use (or not to use) technology within the classroom.
7. Building confidence
Research has given us a couple of models that can serve as a lens to examine the different stages teachers go through in ICT integration, which can assist leaders in formulating strategies. The probably wider known is the SAMR model from Dr. Ruben Puentedura.

Figure 2

Capture2

7.1. Substitution
Teachers or students are only using new technology tools to replace old ones, for instance, using Google Docs to replace Microsoft Word. The task writing for example is the same but the tools are different.
7.2. Augmentation
Is a similar stage like the substitution but with added functionalities. Using the example of Google docs, instead of only writing a document and having to manually save it and share it with others, Google Docs provides extra services like auto saving, auto syncing, and auto sharing in the cloud.

7.3. Modification
In this level technology is being used more effectively not to do the same task using different tools but to redesign new parts of the task and transform students learning. An example of this, for instance, is to collaborate and share feedback on a given task.
7.4. Redefinition
Is provides highest order thinking skills. “Students use technology to create imperceptibly new tasks. As is shown in the video below an example of redefinition is “when students connect to a classroom, they would each write a narrative of the same historical event using the chat and comment section to discuss the differences, and they use the voice comments to discuss the differences they noticed and then embed this in the class website”.

The role of a leader is to help build teacher confidence with the use of technology so that they can move beyond mere Substitution. This can be done in a number of ways.
• Provide them with working, effective tools.
• Provide enough tech support; teachers don’t have time to troubleshoot on their own.
• Provide sufficient devices so students can use them reasonably. You don’t need to have 1:1, but one tablet or computer in a classroom is not technology integration.
• Ensure that there is adequate infrastructure for reliable and readily available internet access. If teachers know the tools, infrastructure, and support are reliable, it builds their confidence. When it is not, quite the opposite is true.
• Bring in quality professional development—hands-on, ongoing, not just sit and get.
• Offer release time to observe exemplary classrooms and to collaborate with one another.
Giving teachers permission to try, and permission to fail is very important too. Technology integration can be like learning to walk, falls and missteps should be expected. (Kimbley, 2015)
Moving classroom technology use up through the levels of the above model is an important task for technology leaders, but not every task needs to be at the top of he model. According to Mandinach and Cline, 1994 educators go through 4 stages of development with their use of technology:
Figure 3

index 2

It is clear that each stage has its own set of issues and challenges that must be addressed. Furthermore, the stages are developmental in the sense that each stage must be successfully addressed in order for progress to continue.
The stages of proficiency with technology and systems thinking are presented as:
1. Survival
2. Mastery
3. Impact
4. Innovation
To integrate technology in a successful way these principles are have to be recognized and conscientiously applied.
The Survival Stage: This is where teachers struggle at first as they are simply in the midst of new and uncomfortable conditions. Teachers are often tempted to take refuge in the comfort and security of traditional classroom practices. Technical problems, physical arrangements, and class management concerns all demand attention in this phase. Technology is present but not effectively utilized. Technology should therefore be introduced and applied in a wisely way. Great care must be taken to recruit and support teachers in this phase of their technological initiation.
Teachers who survive this stage then move on to the Mastery Stage. This stage is for many teachers more comfortable than the previous stage as they will have developed strategies to cope with the changes in their instruction and also have developed a working knowledge of the technology they have encountered. They get more and more experienced in the day to day operation of the technology and have the ability to use the technology in their instructional plans in ways that are basic and varied. Teachers are accepting technology and are not afraid to use it as before. They have developed strategies and alternate plans to carry them through the unexpected problems. In this stage teachers develop more skills and expand to include new ones. The teachers are becoming better and more confident at what they do and are finding themselves capable over a wider range of applications. This (Robbins, 2013) stage develops “a confidence in present skills as well as the ability to meet further challenges as required. Teachers exit the Mastery Stage a confident, satisfied.
In the Impact Stage, teachers use technology in their daily curriculum as they are at ease and skillful in managing the class and accessing the technologies. Teachers are more comfortable in a teaching style that is more learner-centered and varied. Cooperative learning, peer tutoring, and project oriented assignments are a few of the methods employed in the instructional plan. They tend to be facilitators rather than the source of knowledge. They empower their students by giving them control over certain aspects of their work. The standards in this stage are clearly set and schedules are developed, but students are given choices as to topics, reference sources, presentation methods, and other details.
The technology in this setting enhances the options available to the students and teachers are making the learning more productive and enjoyable. Teachers continue to build on their knowledge and acquire new skills as they did at the Mastery Stage but at a higher level of sophistication at this stage. The truly distinctive feature of this stage occurs in the teacher’s mind. The focus progresses past the what or the how and moves on to questions of efficacy and efficiency. At this point The teacher is not just operating a tool in the performance of the task, but is continually improving and preparing the tool for even more effectiveness in producing the desired outcomes.
The final level in the progression is the Innovation stage. In this stage the teacher has consistently used the technology in ways which have clearly improved the state of the learning process. It is the final step when this master teacher is able to evaluate the elements of the technology and modify the technology or the process to improve or expand the productivity of the educational activities. This level goes beyond productivity to what might be called meta-productivity. Meta-productivity takes place when the educator analyzes and evaluates the factors of the learning process and is able to create new and more effective approaches using current and anticipated technology. Teachers who arrive at and progress through this level will do so based on a great deal of enthusiasm, curiosity, self-discipline, and creativity.
Many people would overlook these stages and their importance to the integration of technology into the curriculum. Plans to integrate technology into the curriculum which bypass or fail to recognize these stages of acceptance are subject to weakness if not outright failure. No program of technological integration will be successful if the principles are not recognized and conscientiously applied. (Robbins, 2013)
8. Conclusion
As we have seen an effective ICT integration in school requires a leadership that, can establish a sustainable ICT school policy with quality technical support; flexible and transparent systems for collective planning, sharing of resources, monitoring student progress and resource provision. Also a leadership that encourages improvements establishes protocols and processes to manage ICT communication, interaction, priorities and workloads. (Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, 2006).
A distributed leadership throughout an educational institution can sometimes support ICT integration in school in a more effective way. Principles should also be competent in the use of the technology and poses a general understanding of the technical, curricular, administrative, financial, and social dimensions of ICT use in education. Their Knowledge about the different stages that teachers go through in the implementation phase to gain confidence in integrating ICT in education is very important. Being aware of this process will help the leaders in developing the right strategies needed to support teachers and encourage them to take risks and allow them to fail until they reach mastery in teaching with technology. Best Practices must be shared regularly and teacher’s uncertainty and fears should be addressed to encourage more and more teachers to integrate Technology in their lessons. This research shows how important it is to provide school leaders with an appropriate training to create the awareness needed for ICT integration and support teachers with the decisions and resources needed for such a reason. If school principals feel comfortable using the technology and realize its possible applications in education, then they can help facilitate its incorporation into the curriculum. Training and workshops help raise school principals’ awareness and build their confidence in their abilities to use technology and therefore facilitate its adoption as a complementing part in the curriculum (Polizzi, 2011). Also a positive attitude starting from the school leadership can spread to the teaching faculty in the school and hence to the classroom and the students. (Groff, 2008)

9. Table of Figures
Figure 1………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….6
Figure 2…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………10
Figure 3…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………11
10. Works Cited
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Flanagan, L. ( 2003). Technology leadership for the twenty-first century principal. Emerald group publishing – Journal of Educational Administration- Vol. 41 No. 2, 124-142.
Fullan, M. (2001). The new meaning of educational change. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Fullan, M. (2005). Leadership and sustainability: systems thinkers in action. California: Corwen Press and Ontario Principals’ Council.
Groff, J. &. (2008). A framework for addressing challenges to classroom technology use. AACE Journal, 16(1), 21-46.
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Kimbley, W. (2015, February 20). SAMR and Teacher Confidence: A confluence of models. Retrieved June 1, 2015, from TBLOGICAL: http://www.portical.org/blog/samr-and-teacher-confidence-a-confluence-of-models/3138.htm
Kozma, R. (2003). Technology, innovation and educational change: A global perspective. Information Society for.
Leithwood, K. A. (2005). What do we already know about successful school leadership? In W. A.Firestone & C. Riehl (Eds), A new agenda for research in educational leadership. New York: Teachers College Press.
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Mwawasi, F. M. (2014). Technology leadership and ICT use: Strategies for Capacity Building for ICT integration. Journal of Learning for Development.
Nan-Zhao, Z. &. (2003). Building Capacity of Teachers/Facilitators in Technology-Pedagogy Integration for Improved Teaching and Learning. Bangkok: Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education- UNESCO.
Ng, W.-K., & Miao et al., F. (2009-2010). Capacity-building for ICT integration in education. Digital Review of Asia Pacific, 67-76.
Nyenwe, J., & Ishikaku, E. C. (Vol 3, No 10, 2012). Integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Teacher Education for Capacity Building. Journal of Education and Practice, 68-73.
Otto, T. L. (2002). Understanding the role of school leaders in realizing the potential of ICTs in. International Conference of the Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.
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About Yasmin Youssef

Yasmin Youssef is a certified education & ICT expert in interactive boards and education technology and has been in the field of Teacher Training”since 2007. She is currently the Head of the Education Consultant Department at Gimpex. Yasmin obtained her Master Degree in International Education Management from both PH-Ludwigsburg/Germany and Helwan University/Cairo. She also got her pedagogical teaching Diploma, das GrüneDiplom from Berlin in 2008 after working as a German language instructor at the Goethe Institute in Cairo. Her professional experience in education was gained through several years of teaching German as a foreign language and holding the position of the Head of the German Department for 15 years in a private school. She also helped in founding a private German school here in Egypt. During that time she was able to enrich her knowledge by taking part in several training courses related to education technology around Europe and online. Yasmin has cooperated with Ministry of Education, the faculty of education Ain Shams and the TDC also with many international, private and public schools & Universities. She supports teachers and faculty members in teaching with digital media, helping them to use these tools interactively in order to provide their students with strategies that help them gain 21st century skills and thus preparing them for a sustainable future. As passionate blogger, Yasmin has published 24 blogs about education technology and wrote many research papers in this field, especially in Blended Learning and the integration of ICT in educational Institutions. This link will tell you more about her work experience: experience: https://mobiletabletlearn.wordpress.com/about/

Posted on June 9, 2015, in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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